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What is the GSM?

The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Sp�cial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. GSM service is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories.


What is GPRS?

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a Mobile Data Service available to users of GSM and IS-136 mobile phones. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of transferred data, while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independent of whether the user has actually transferred data or has been in an idle state. GPRS can be utilized for services such as WAP access, SMS and MMS, but also for Internet communication services such as email and web access. It is generally classified as a 2.5G network technology.

What is EDGE / EGPRS?

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) or Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), is a digital mobile phone technology that allows to increase data transmission rate and improve data transmission reliability. It is generally classified as a 2.75G network technology. EDGE has been introduced into GSM networks around the world since 2003, initially in North America.

It can be used for any packet switched applications such as an Internet connection. High-speed data applications such as video services and other multimedia benefit from EGPRS' increased data capacity. EDGE Circuit Switched is a possible future development.

What is CDMA?

Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a form of multiplexing and a method of multiple access that divides up a radio channel not by time (as in time division multiple access), nor by frequency (as in frequency-division multiple access), but instead by using different pseudo-random code sequences for each user. CDMA is a form of "spread-spectrum" signaling, since the modulated coded signal has a much higher bandwidth than the data being communicated.

What is 3G

3G is third-generation technology in the context of mobile phone standards. The services associated with 3G provide the ability to transfer simultaneously both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchanging email, and instant messaging). In marketing 3G services, video telephony has often been suggested as the killer application for 3G.

What is UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. The currently most common form uses W-CDMA as the underlying air interface, is standardized by the 3GPP, and is the European answer to the ITU IMT-2000 requirements for 3G cellular radio systems.

What is UMTS - TDD

UMTS-TDD is a mobile data network standard built upon the UMTS 3G cellular mobile phone standard, using a TD-CDMA, TD-SCDMA, or other 3GPP-approved, air interface that uses Time Division Duplexing to duplex spectrum between the up-link and down-link. While a full mobile UMTS implementation, it is mainly used to provide Internet access in circumstances similar to those where WiMAX might be used. UMTS-TDD is not directly compatible with UMTS: a device designed to use one standard cannot, unless specifically designed to, work on the other, because of the difference in air interface technologies and frequencies used

What is CDMA 2000 / 1x RTT ?

CDMA2000 is a hybrid 2.5G / 3G protocol of mobile telecommunications standards that use CDMA, a multiple access scheme for digital radio, to send voice, data, and signaling data (such as a dialed telephone number) between mobile phones and cell sites. CDMA2000 is considered a 2.5G protocol in 1xRTT and a 3G protocol in EVDO

What is CDMA 2000 / 1x EVDO ?

Evolution-Data Optimized, abbreviated as EV-DO or EVDO and often EV, is a wireless radio broadband data standard adopted by many CDMA mobile phone service providers in United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, Asia, Russia, Brazil, and Australia. It is standardized by 3GPP2, as part of the CDMA2000 family of standards.

What is TD SCDMA?

TD-SCDMA (Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) is a 3G mobile telecommunications standard, being pursued in the People's Republic of China by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology (CATT), Datang and Siemens AG, in an attempt to develop home-grown technology and not be "dependent on Western technology". This is likely primarily for practical reasons, both current 3G formats may require the payment of patent fees to Qualcomm and UMTS requires license fees from the primarily European-based 3G consortium. It is based on spread spectrum CDMA technology which makes it unlikely that TD-SCDMA will be able to completely escape payment of CDMA license fees to Qualcomm. The launch of an operational system was initially projected by 2005 but is now projected by 2007

What is GAN / UMA?

The Generic Access Network (GAN) was formerly known as Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA), until it was adopted by the 3GPP in April 2005.

It describes a telecommunication system allowing seamless roaming and handover between local area networks and wide area networks using the same dual-mode mobile phone. Unfortunately the term GAN remains little known outside the 3GPP community, and the term UMA continues to be used in preference as a marketing term.

The local network could be based on private unlicensed spectrum technologies like Bluetooth or 802.11. The wide network is alternatively GSM/GPRS or UMTS mobile services.

It lets mobile operators deliver voice, data and IMS/SIP (IP Multimedia Subsystem/Session Initiation Protocol) type applications to mobile phones on local networks. Its ultimate goal is the convergence of mobile, fixed and Internet telephony (Fixed Mobile Convergence).

On the cellular network, the mobile handset is communicating over the air with a base station, through a base station controller, to servers in the core network of the carrier. Under the GAN system, when the handset detects a LAN, it establishes a secure IP connection through a gateway to a server called a GAN Controller (GANC) on the carrier's network. The GANC translates the signals coming from the handset to make it appear to be coming from another base station. Thus, when a mobile moves from a GSM to a Wifi network, it appears to the core network as if it is simply on a different base station.

GAN was developed as UMA by the Unlicensed Mobile Access Consortium (UMAC) and is now part of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specifications.

What is HSPA?

High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. Two standards HSDPA and HSUPA have been established and a further standard HSOPA is being proposed.

What is HSDPA?

High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) (Sometimes known as High-Speed Downlink Protocol Access) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol in the HSPA family, which provides a roadmap for UMTS-based networks to increase their data transfer speeds and capacity. Current HSDPA deployments now support 1.8 Mbit/s, 3.6 Mbit/s, 7.2 Mbit/s and 14.4 Mbit/s in downlink.

Further speed grades are planned for the near future. The networks are then to be upgraded to HSPA Evolved, which provides speeds of 42Mbit downlink in its first release.[1]

In addition to supporting high data speeds, HSDPA greatly increases the capacity of the network. Current HSDPA networks have the capacity to provide each customer with 30 gigabytes of data per month in addition to 1000 minutes of voice and 300 minutes of mobile TV.

What is HSUPA?

High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol in the HSPA family with up-link speeds up to 5.76 Mbit/s.

The specifications for HSUPA are included in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Release 6 standard published by 3GPP.

What is HSOPA?

High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA) is a proposed part of 3GPP's Long Term Evolution (LTE) upgrade path for UMTS systems. HSOPA is also often referred to as Super 3G. If adopted, HSOPA succeeds HSDPA and HSUPA technologies specified in 3GPP releases 5 and 6. Unlike HSDPA or HSUPA, HSOPA is an entirely new air interface system, unrelated to and incompatible with W-CDMA.

What is 4G?

4G is short for fourth-generation cellular communication system. There is no set definition to what 4G is, however the features that are predicted for 4G can be summarized in a single sentence:

The 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks achieved after the convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computer, consumer electronics, communication technology, and several other convergences that will be capable of providing 100 Mbps and 1Gbps, respectively, in outdoor and indoor environments with end-to-end QoS and high security, offering any kind of services anytime, anywhere, at affordable cost and one billing.

What is UWB?

UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband) is the brand name for the project within 3GPP2 to improve the CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications and requirements. The system employs OFDMA technology along with advanced antenna techniques to provide peak rates of up to 280Mbps. Goals for UMB include significantly improving system capacity, greatly increasing user data rates throughout the cell, lowering costs, enhancing existing services, making possible new applications, and making use of new spectrum opportunities. The technology will provide users with concurrent IP-based services in a full mobility environment. The UMB standardization is expected to be completed in mid 2007, with commercialization taking place around mid-2009.

What is UMTS LTE  (Revision 8)?

3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. Goals include improving efficiency, lowering costs, improving services, making use of new spectrum opportunities, and better integration with other open standards. The LTE project is not a standard, but it will result in the new evolved release 8 of the UMTS standard, including mostly or wholly extensions and modifications of the UMTS system.

What is WiMAX?

WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802.16 standard, officially known as Wireless-MAN. WiMAX aims to provide wireless data over long distances, in a variety of different ways, from point to point links to full mobile cellular type access. The Forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL.

What is WiFi?

Wi-Fi is a brand originally licensed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to describe the embedded technology of wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802.11 specifications. Wi-Fi was developed to be used for mobile computing devices, such as laptops in LANs, but is now increasingly used for more services, including Internet and VoIP phone access, gaming, and basic connectivity of consumer electronics such as televisions, DVD players, and digital cameras. More standards are in development that will allow Wi-Fi to be used by cars on highways in support of an Intelligent Transportation System to increase safety, gather statistics, and enable mobile commerce (see IEEE 802.11p). Wi-Fi and the Wi-Fi CERTIFIED logo are registered trademarks of the Wi-Fi Alliance - the trade organization that tests and certifies equipment compliance with the 802.11x standards.

What is SS7?

Signaling System #7 (SS7) is a set of telephony signaling protocols which are used to set up the vast majority of the world's public switched telephone network telephone calls.

It is usually abbreviated to SS7 though in North America it is often referred to as CCS7, an acronym for "Common Channel Signaling System 7". In some European countries, specifically the United Kingdom, it is sometimes called C7 (CCITT number 7) and is also known as number 7 and CCIS7. (ITU-T was formerly known as CCITT.)

What is VoIP?

Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP, IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadband telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the routing of voice conversations over the Internet or through any other IP-based network.

What is SIP?

"The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. These sessions include Internet telephone calls, multimedia distribution, and multimedia conferences." (cit. RFC 3261). It was originally designed by Henning Schulzrinne (Columbia University) and Mark Handley (UCL) starting in 1996. The latest version of the specification is RFC 3261 from the IETF SIP Working Group. In November 2000, SIP was accepted as a 3GPP signaling protocol and permanent element of the IMS architecture. It is widely used as a signaling protocol for Voice over IP, along with H.323 and others.

What is OFDM?

Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) - essentially identical to Coded OFDM (COFDM) - is a digital multi-carrier modulation scheme, which uses a large number of closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers. Each sub-carrier is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (such as quadrature amplitude modulation) at a low symbol rate, maintaining data rates similar to conventional single-carrier modulation schemes in the same bandwidth. In practice, OFDM signals are generated using the Fast Fourier transform algorithm.

What is RF?

Radio frequency, or RF, refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current which is fed to an antenna.


What is MIMO?

Multiple-input multiple-output, or MIMO, refers to the use of multiple antennas both at the transmitter and receiver. Another common term for this technology is Smart Antennas, which performs spatial information processing with multiple antennas. Specifically, degenerate cases of MIMO are single-input multiple-output, or SIMO, when the transmitter has a single antenna and multiple-input single-output, or MISO, when the receiver has a single antenna. A system without multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver is single-input single-output, or SISO.

MIMO technology has attracted attention in wireless communications, since it offers significant increases in data throughput and link range without additional bandwidth or transmit power. It achieves this by higher spectral efficiency (more bits per second per Hertz of bandwidth) and link reliability or diversity (reduced fading).

What is ATM?

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, Circuit switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ATM provides data link layer services that run over SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking) Layer 1 links. This differs from other technologies based on packet-switched networks (such as the Internet Protocol or Ethernet), in which variable sized packets (sometimes known as frames) are used. ATM is a connection-oriented technology, in which a logical connection is established between the two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins.


What is Bluetooth?

Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers, digital cameras, and video game consoles over a secure, globally unlicensed short-range radio frequency. The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group.

What is DECT?

DECT or Digital Enhanced (formerly European) Cordless Telecommunications is an ETSI standard for digital portable phones, commonly used for domestic or corporate purposes. DECT can also be used for wireless data transfers. DECT is recognized by the ITU as fulfilling the IMT-2000 requirements and thus qualifies as a 3G system, as a part of the IMT-2000 group of technologies, DECT is also referred to as IMT-FT (Frequency Time).


What is TETRA?

TErrestrial Trunked RAdio (TETRA) (formerly known as Trans European Trunked RAdio) is a specialist Professional Mobile Radio and two-way transceiver (colloquially known as a walkie talkie), the use of which is restricted to use by government agencies, and specifically emergency services, such as police forces, fire departments, ambulance services and the military.

TETRA is an ETSI standard, first version published 1995. TETRA is endorsed by the European Radio Communications Committee (ERC).


What is MPLS?

MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a data-carrying mechanism which emulates some properties of a circuit-switched network over a packet-switched network. MPLS operates at an OSI Model layer that is generally considered to lie between traditional definitions of Layer 2 (data link layer) and Layer 3 (network layer), and thus is often referred to as a "Layer 2.5" protocol. It was designed to provide a unified data-carrying service for both circuit-based clients and packet-switching clients which provide a datagram service model. It can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic, including IP packets, as well as native ATM, SONET, and Ethernet frames.


What is Mobile IP?

Mobile IP (or MobileIP) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard communications protocol that is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining a permanent IP address. Mobile IPv4 is described in IETF RFC 3344 (Obsoleting both RFC 3220 and RFC 2002), and updates are added in IETF RFC 4721. Mobile IPv6 is described in IETF RFC 3775


What is CAMEL?

Customized Applications for Mobile networks Enhanced Logic, or CAMEL (ETSI TS 123 078) for short, is a set of standards designed to work on either a GSM core network or UMTS network. They allow an operator to define services over and above standard GSM services/UMTS services. The CAMEL architecture is based on the Intelligent Network (IN) standards, and uses the CAP protocol.

Many services can be created using CAMEL, and it is particularly effective in allowing these services to be offered when a subscriber is roaming, like for instance no-prefix dialling (the number the user dials is the same no matter the country where the call is placed) or seamless MMS message access from abroad.

CAMEL has been specified in 4 phases. Phases 1 and 2 support adding IN services to a GSM network. CAMEL phase 1 provides basic call control capabilities such as call forwarding and basic VPN. CAMEL phase 2 provides more advanced capabilities (both call control and non-call control related) such as on-line charging (call-control) and USSD control (non-call control). Phases 3 and 4 support adding services to a UMTS network. All 4 phases can be used in either a GSM or a UMTS network.